Between 1931 and 1934 at least 5 million people perished of hunger all across the U.S.S.R. Among them, according to a study conducted by a team of Ukrainian demographers, were at least 3.9 million Ukrainians.... read more ›
|Missing in action||500,000|
|POW returned to USSR||1,836,000|
|Total reported missing||4,559,000|
Major contributing factors to the famine include the forced collectivization in the Soviet Union of agriculture as a part of the first five-year plan, forced grain procurement, combined with rapid industrialization, a decreasing agricultural workforce, and several severe droughts.... continue reading ›
More than half of the total number of casualties are accounted for by the dead of the Republic of China and of the Soviet Union. The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses. Statistics on the number of military wounded are included whenever available.... see more ›
The last major famine in the USSR happened mainly in 1947 as a cumulative effect of consequences of collectivization, war damage, the severe drought in 1946 in over 50 percent of the grain-productive zone of the country and government social policy and mismanagement of grain reserves.... view details ›
The Soviet Union is estimated to have suffered the highest number of WWII casualties.... view details ›
In the 2021 Global Hunger Index, Russia ranks 25th out of the 116 countries with sufficient data to calculate 2021 GHI scores. With a score of 6.2, Russia has a level of hunger that is low.... read more ›
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there have been occasional issues with hunger and food insecurity in Russia. In 1992 there was a notable decline in calorie intake within the Russian Federation. Both Russia and Ukraine were subject to a series of severe droughts from July 2010 to 2015.... view details ›
Russia Hunger Statistics 2001-2022.
|Russia Hunger Statistics - Historical Data|
|Year||% of Population||Annual Change|
This famine killed an estimated 5 million people, primarily affecting the Volga and Ural River regions, and peasants resorted to cannibalism. One of Russia's intermittent droughts in 1921 aggravated the situation to a national catastrophe.... continue reading ›
In Ukraine alone between 1932 and 1933, more than 3 million people died as a result of famine caused by Stalin's collectivization policies.
So, how many people did Stalin kill?. According to historians who studied Soviet archives before and after the fall of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin likely killed between six million and 20 million people.. Public DomainBy 1941, when his photo of Joseph Stalin was taken, millions had already died from famine, exile, and executions.. Having renamed himself “Joseph Stalin” or “Man of Steel,” Stalin joined the Bolshevik party, became close with Vladimir Lenin, and helped organize strikes and demonstrations.. From 1929 until Joseph Stalin’s death in 1953, millions of people died in the Soviet Union as a result of his policies.. So, how many people did Stalin kill?. As reported by The New York Times in 1989, Soviet historian Roy Medvedev estimated that these policies resulted in “nine million to 11 million of the more prosperous peasants driven from their lands and another two million to three million arrested or exiled,” many of whom died as a result.. Medvedev also noted that six to seven million likely died during the famine that emerged from Stalin’s collectivization policies.. However, Timothy Snyder, an American historian who published a book in 2010 that analyzed the question of how many people Stalin killed, argued in The New York Review Of Books that “just” five million died as a result of Stalin’s famines between 1930 and 1933.. So, how many people did Stalin kill?. Medvedev, without access to official archives, estimated in 1989 that Stalin killed 20 million people.. Other historians — largely before the fall of the USSR — have guessed that Stalin could have killed millions more.. But while he likely killed more than Germany’s Adolf Hitler — who oversaw the deliberate extermination of 11 million people, including six million European Jews — Stalin did not kill the most people in the 20th century.. After reading about how many people Joseph Stalin killed, delve into the story of how the dictator tried to assassinate John Wayne .
Was the US justified in dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the Second World War? ›
For years debate has raged over whether the US was right to drop two atomic bombs on Japan during the final weeks of the Second World War. The first bomb, dropped on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, resulted in a total death toll of around 140,000. The second, which hit Nagasaki on 9 August, killed around 50,000 people. But was the US justified? We put the question to historians and two HistoryExtra readers...
I should also add that there was a fine line between the atomic bomb and conventional bombing – indeed descriptions of Hamburg or Tokyo after conventional bombing echo the aftermath of Hiroshima.. A bloody invasion and round-the-clock conventional bombing would have led to a far higher death toll and so the atomic weapons actually saved thousands of American and millions of Japanese lives.. The evidence has become overwhelming that it was the entry of the Soviet Union on 8 August into the war against Japan that forced surrender but, understandably, this view is very difficult for Americans to accept.. The military’s argument was that Japan could convince the Soviet Union to mediate on its behalf for better surrender terms than unconditional surrender and therefore should continue the war until that was achieved.. By dropping the atomic bombs instead, the United States signalled to the world that it considered nuclear weapons to be legitimate weapons of war.. Another thing to bear in mind is that while just over 200,000 people were killed in total by the atomic bombs, it is estimated that 300,000–500,000 Japanese people (many of whom were civilians) died or disappeared in Soviet captivity.. The fact is that there was no historical record over the past 2,600 years of Japan ever surrendering, nor any examples of a Japanese unit surrendering during the war.. I don’t agree with revisionists who say Truman used the bomb to intimidate the Soviet Union but I believe he used it to force Japan to surrender before they were able to enter the war.. The absolutist moral arguments (such as not harming civilians) made against the atomic bombs would have precluded many other actions essential to victory taken by the Allies during the most destructive war in history.. They had in their hands a weapon that was capable of bringing the war to a swift end, and so they used it.The atom bombs achieved their desired effects by causing maximum devastation .. RC: After the bloody battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa , the death toll on both sides was high, and the countries’ negative view of one other became almost unbridgeable, says J Samuel Walker in Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and The Use of Atomic Bombs Against Japan .. The atomic bombs certainly established US dominance immediately after the Second World War – the destructive power it possessed meant that it remained uncontested as the world’s greatest power until the Soviets developed their own weapon, four years after the deployment at Nagasaki.. It might be argued that, following the explosions, Japan virtually disappeared from the world stage while the USSR viewed the bombing as an incentive to acquire the same weaponry in order to retaliate in equal force if the atomic bomb was ever used again.. Postponing the use of the atom bomb would only have prolonged the war and potentially created an even worse fate for the people of Japan, with an estimated five to 10 million Japanese fatalities – a number higher than some estimates for the entire Soviet military in the Second World War.. The millions of deaths calculated by Operation Downfall [the codename for the Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of the Second World War, which was abandoned when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki] actually show that only desperation and honour stood between Japan and unconditional surrender.
Anne Applebaum's new book tells of an atrocity and cover-up that shape today's politics.
Her new book Red Famine —a. masterpiece of scholarship, a ground-breaking history, and a heart-wrenching. story—turns to the horrors of Soviet policy in Ukraine, specifically Stalin’s mass. starvation of Ukraine from 1932 to 1933.. Moreover, they were—along with the persecution of intellectuals. and officials who had even the flimsiest connection to Ukrainian nationalism—part. of a systematic assault not just on Ukraine, but on the very idea of Ukraine.. Non-Ukrainian Soviet citizens had been taught to distrust. Ukrainians ever since the country had attempted to mould its own destiny in. June 1917 by setting up a Ukrainian People’s Republic.. During the famine of the 1930s, as peasants lay dying, the. Soviet secret police began to repress all manner of Ukrainian intellectuals and. officials who had tried to promote Ukraine’s language or history.. The famine and repression of the Ukrainian. intellectual classes eventually brought about “the Sovietization of Ukraine,. the destruction of the Ukrainian national idea, and the neutering of any. Ukrainian challenge to Soviet Unity.”. In fact, in an ironic twist, the German invaders’ use of this. history as propaganda against Stalin during the war made it easy for Soviet. officials and historians to label anyone talking of a deliberate famine against. Ukraine as “fascists” and “Nazis” spreading “Hitlerite propaganda.”
Established in 1938, the German Armed Forces High Command was theoretically a unified military command controlling Germany’s air force, navy, and army. In reality, the establishm...
The German High Command, with Adolf Hitler at its head, directed Germany’s armed forces before and during the Second World War.. Germany’s military leaders were central to Hitler’s rise to power, supported his desire for a war of conquest, and were complicit in the Holocaust and many other of the regime’s crimes.. The German high command consisted of Adolf Hitler, the War Ministry—after February 1938, the Armed Forces High Command ( Oberkommando der Wehrmacht , OKW)—and the high commands of the three services: the air force ( Luftwaffe ), the navy ( Kriegsmarine ), and the army ( Heer ).. Despite its name, the OKW was not a unifying command organization; the other services maintained their independence, with the Army High Command ( Oberkommando des Heeres , OKH) and its General Staff holding a dominant position.. He was not just the Führer (Leader) of Germany, but also Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces (after February 1938) and Commander in Chief of the Army (after December, 1941).. Other key figures were Wilhelm Keitel , Chief of the OKW; Alfred Jodl , Hitler’s primary military advisor in the OKW; Werner von Blomberg, Defense Minister and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces until Hitler took over; Werner von Fritsch and Walther von Brauchitsch, Commanders in Chief of the Army until Hitler took on that role, too; and Ludwig Beck and Franz Halder, Chiefs of the Army General Staff.. Like many people in Germany, its military leaders did not believe that the Allies had defeated the German army in World War I .. Hitler and the Nazis seemed to address that role, so the generals supported Hitler’s rise to power and his suppression of all other political parties.. The radicalization of Nazi racial policy that accompanied the onset of the war tested the limits of the army’s loyalty to Hitler.. The army and the SS drew up agreements by which Einsatzgruppen and other mobile killing squads would follow along behind the army, shooting Jews and Communists, with the army providing logistical support.