In the early years of the Cold War (between 1948–53), seventy explicitly anti-communist films were released. American films incorporated a wide scale of Cold War themes and issues into all genres of film, which gave American motion pictures a particular lead over Soviet film.... read more ›
The Cold War affected domestic policy two ways: socially and economically. Socially, the intensive indoctrination of the American people led to a regression of social reforms. Economically, enormous growth spurred by industries related to war was aided by heavy government expansion.... continue reading ›
The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and led to nuclear proliferation and proxy wars between and within postcolonial states in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.... see more ›
- Containment of Russia. ...
- Arms Race Between the United States & Russia. ...
- Development of the Hydrogen Bomb. ...
- Space exploration. ...
- Fall of the Berlin Wall.
On the one hand, popular culture was based on a simple model of good versus evil that supported social consensus and conformity at the height of the Cold War. On the other hand, popular culture produced a reaction in the form of a counterculture that flaunted social conventions and conformity.... see more ›
Life in the US
Most citizens were happy and living successful lives. At the same time, however, some were paranoid and feared Soviet invasion or nuclear war. Nuclear preparedness became a way of life, and many schools and businesses practiced duck-and-cover drills in case of an event.... read more ›
Historians have identified several causes that led to the outbreak of the Cold War, including: tensions between the two nations at the end of World War II, the ideological conflict between both the United States and the Soviet Union, the emergence of nuclear weapons, and the fear of communism in the United States.... see details ›
How did the Cold War impact American life at home? Communist spies created a climate of suspicion in the United States. Two famous spy cases reinforced fears that Soviet spies in the United States were sharing American secrets with foreign Communists.... continue reading ›
Solution. I think the most significant effect of the Cold War was the arms race that saw both the United States and the Soviet Union stockpiling nuclear weapons, building hydrogen bombs, and military buildup.... continue reading ›
The long-term effects of the Cold War on American government were immense. First and foremost, it led to the permanent creation of a peacetime defense and armaments industry, as President Eisenhower noted in his farewell address. It forced the United States to adopt a much more international outlook on world affairs.... read more ›
What was the Cold War? The Cold War was an ongoing political rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies that developed after World War II. This hostility between the two superpowers was first given its name by George Orwell in an article published in 1945.... read more ›
Although the Cold War had many negative influences on global society, it also helped to create a stable political world, as evidenced by the fact that during the Cold War era, civil wars, nationalistic uprisings, and ethnic cleansings were almost non-existent.... read more ›
During 1989 and 1990, the Berlin Wall came down, borders opened, and free elections ousted Communist regimes everywhere in eastern Europe. In late 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved into its component republics.... continue reading ›
The Cold War affected America by leading to the rise in McCarthyism and the persecution of innocent Americans, changing pop culture to be dominated by fear and communism, and led to the execution of the containment policy that would stretch thin relations with opposing nations.... view details ›
Which best describes the Cold War? A tense, forty-year standoff between the Soviet Union and the United States.... continue reading ›
The Cold War instigated strong anti-communism within the USA. The hatred towards Communism was so great that it eventually led to McCarthyism. During McCarthyism, Americans were obsessed with the process of identifying the Communists and removing those Communists from American society.... see details ›
Fears that communist “sympathizers” and spies were infiltrating U.S. institutions and government gripped the public. In addition, anxiety grew among a public that was under the constant risk of a nuclear attack by the Soviet Union and faced heavy losses sustained in conflicts overseas like the Vietnam War.... see more ›
The Cold War linked “survival and security to traditional family values” (May, 162). While the war caused a “grave disruption of the family system” (May, 163), the postwar era saw a return to traditional family roles and a reaffirmation of the traditional role of women as homemakers.... view details ›
The United States' main concern during the Cold War was communism. The Cold War was not a traditional war. It was "cold" because the U.S. and the Soviet Union did not fight each other directly. The Cold War began after World War II ended in 1945.... view details ›
The policy of containment later informed the “domino theory,” which stated that one country falling to Communism meant the surrounding countries were likely to fall as well. This policy ultimately pushed the United States to enter into wars in Korea, Vietnam, and other Cold War conflicts.... read more ›
The Cold War was caused by the social climate and tension in Europe at the end of World War II and by the increasing power struggles between the Soviet Union. Economic separation between the Soviets and the west also heightened tensions, along with the threat of nuclear war.... read more ›
Three events heralded the end of the Cold War: the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Each was brought about or shaped by the demands and actions of ordinary Europeans, who were determined to instigate change.... continue reading ›
How did the Cold War Affect life in the 1950's? The Cold War affected life in the 1950's because everyday everyone was frightened of not knowing if a nuclear war would start or not, fears of communist infiltration made 1950's time of contrast, the United States needed someone who made them fell safe.... continue reading ›
The Cold War fueled a search for internal enemies at home that resulted in the hysteria of McCarthyism and a near stifling of political dissent. It encouraged the formation of families at a faster rate than ever before as individuals sought security in the nuclear age through marriage and children.... continue reading ›
The impact of the Cold War would affect American politics and society for decades to come. It also increased the power of the executive branch and expanded the federal budget. There was also the cost of the anti-communist wave across the US that would lead to them fight communism around the world.... continue reading ›
The concrete legacy of the Cold War rotates around three elements: nuclear weapons and the related arms control and non-proliferation treaties; local conflicts with long-lasting consequences; and international institutions that continue to play a key role today.... view details ›
How did the Cold War affect the meanings of American freedom? Certain elements of society were elevated to central roles in the idea of freedom, particularly what came to be called "free enterprise." Free enterprise, capitalism, and market economics became essential to the idea of freedom.... continue reading ›
14 Cold War tensions changed the way that public schools were viewed, turning them into a force for national defense, deepening the connection between the federal government and the classroom through changes in education policy and curricula. Education Act (1958) and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965).... continue reading ›
In addition to the increasing consumption of natural resources and resulting pollution, the destructive capacity of the weapons of mass destruction compelled human beings to recognise that their activities could ultimately endanger the planet earth.... view details ›
A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates. This term is most commonly used to refer to the American-Soviet Cold War of 1947–1991.... read more ›
The Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union lasted for decades and resulted in anti-communist suspicions and international incidents that led the two superpowers to the brink of nuclear disaster.... view details ›
The Cold War got its name because both sides were afraid of fighting each other directly. In a "hot war," nuclear weapons might destroy everything. So, instead, both sides fought each other indirectly. They supported opposing sides in conflicts in different parts of the world.... continue reading ›
The Crash and End of the Cold War
From 1982 to 1985, video game sales dropped from 3.2 billion to 100 million. Atari, the video game giant, was the worst casualty of crash. After losing hundreds of millions of dollars, Atari was sold and would never regain the success it had before.... continue reading ›
Cold War music spans a number of styles and genres: from whimsical country and western songs in the 1950s to the folk-protest music of the Woodstock era, to songs about the revived nuclear paranoia of the 1980s.... continue reading ›
Which trend was a major change in audiences after WWII? Moved from cities to suburbs. Unlike 3-D, Cinerama was fairly inexpensive.... read more ›
The Cold War affected America by leading to the rise in McCarthyism and the persecution of innocent Americans, changing pop culture to be dominated by fear and communism, and led to the execution of the containment policy that would stretch thin relations with opposing nations.... see more ›
To understand our current political climate, let's revisit the rich cadre of Cold War films in our collective cultural archives.
Russian and Soviet cinema is no different; in their films Americans are either morally deplorable or totally naive, and always filthy rich.. "Red Dawn ," John Milius' 1984 Soviet invasion film, follows a group of rural high schoolers who take to the hills after a mix of Russian and Latin American communists occupy their region.. At one point a Russian official tells a local American who is cooperating with the takeover, “You lost your country long before we ever got here.” In all of these stories the focus is on America and American values, when these values of self-reliance, preparation and resourcefulness falter, America falls.. In " Air Force One " (1997), the Vice President played by Glenn Close , asks Gary Oldman's Russian hijacker what he wants, “When Mother Russia become one great nation again, when the capitalists are dragged out of the Kremlin and shot in the streets, when our enemies run and hide in fear at the mention of our names and the America begs our forgiveness- on that great day of deliverance, you will know what I want.” Though the Cold War was supposedly over, Russian film characters were still fighting an ideological battle long after America thought it had already won.. Just as films from the Soviet Union revealed deep truths about American society, we are learning now that some of these popular Hollywood plotlines also reflect truths about Russia worth bearing in our new political climate: they play the long game and are in it to win.
The First World War (1914-1918) marked the initial foray by the US ruling elite into promoting a war with assistance from Hollywood film companies. The latter responded enthusiastically to the appeals of the Woodrow Wilson administration.
For the German Carl Laemmle, president of Universal Film Manufacturing Company (later Universal Pictures), these fears were justified in the fall of 1915 after several British newspapers accused Hollywood films of being backed by German capital.. During the summer of 1918, Laemmle’s studio produced a series of one-reelers on The Wonders of Our War Work , each of which bore “the official sanction and authority of the Committee on Public Information.” Universal lobbied newspaper support for the motion picture industry’s war activities to counteract “misguided zealots” singling out the film business as being expendable during wartime.. In early 1917, executives from Vitagraph, Famous Players-Lasky (Paramount’s official name at the time), Mutual, Fox and several trade magazines, joined Universal in sending President Wilson a telegram pledging “combined support for the defense of our country and its interests.” Reminding Wilson of Hollywood’s ability to influence the opinions of its daily 12 million US cinema patrons, the signers offered to form a commission “to place the motion picture at your service in the most intelligent and useful manner.” In July of that year, Wilson appointed William A. Brady of World Film to head the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry (NAMPI), an organization allied with the government’s Committee on Public Information.. Distributor Louis B. Mayer (the future head of MGM) had full charge of NAMPI’s New England war campaign and told Boston theater owners that motion pictures were “the great intermediary between the public and the government of Washington.” Widespread exhibition of films, said Mayer, provided “invaluable aid to the government and its various propagandas.” At the first rally of the Motion Picture War Relief Association in Los Angeles in May 1918, Paramount/Lasky director Cecil B.. The most infamous and telling World War I film censorship case was the banning of the independent Revolutionary War picture The Spirit of ’76 .. “Universal Puts Out Stirring Training Film,” Moving Picture World (4 May 1918).“Universal to Make Films for Government,” Moving Picture World (22 June 1918), p. 1724.. “President Wilson Calls Upon Film Industry,” Moving Picture World (14 July 1917), p. 217..  “Motion Pictures Mobilized for War,” Moving Picture World (11 August 1917), p. 918.. “Motion Picture Industry Boosting Bond Sale,” Moving Picture World (4 May 1918), pp.. “Shall Horrors of War in Film be Banned?” Moving Picture World (5 May 1917), p. 834.. “Maryland Censors Recall Certain War Films,” Moving Picture World (12 May 1917), p. 997.
Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon shapes and censors the movies by David L. Robb, a former journalist for Daily Variety and the Hollywood Reporter, is a timely work. Published in 2004, a year after the US-led occupation of Iraq, it exposes one of the dark secrets of American movies—military interference in film production and Hollywood’s acquiescence to it.
Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon shapes and censors the movies by David L. Robb, a former journalist for Daily Variety and the Hollywood Reporter , is a timely work.. While collaboration between the US military and Hollywood, of course, is not a new phenomenon, few moviegoers realise how much control the Pentagon has over the American film industry.. After the war, the Pentagon formally established its “film approval” process and then, in 1948, set up a special movie liaison office, as part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs.. Producers and directors wanting access to military equipment, locations or personnel, or even Department of Defense (DOD) archival footage—which was always very costly—were required to have their work vetted by the Pentagon.. The Air Force Entertainment Liaison Office, for example, now boasts it own web site— Wings over Hollywood —and in 2001, the CIA appointed its own film industry liaison officer.. Some of the better-known movies refused help because their directors would not agree to Pentagon demands include: The Last Detail (1973), Apocalypse Now (1979), An Officer and a Gentleman (1982), Born on the Fourth of the July (1989) and Forrest Gump (1994).. According to Army Major Ray Smith from the film liaison office, Apocalypse Now’s central story line—a CIA mission to assassinate Colonel Kurtz (Marlon Brando), a rebel US military officer in Vietnam—was “not realistic”.. A few years later, An Officer and a Gentleman was denied all access to military equipment and locations, because the Pentagon claimed that the movie’s depiction of a navy officers’ training program was “inaccurate”.. Captain Matt Morgan of the Marine film liaison office claimed that the movie’s portrayals were “un-Marine” and demanded changes.. The Pentagon rejected these overtures, claiming that the movie did not contain any “true military heroes” and that Captain Steve Hiller (Will Smith) was too irresponsible to be cast as a Marine leader (he dates a stripper).. Political limitations While Operation Hollywood provides numerous examples of Pentagon censorship and the subservience of an assortment of film industry executives, directors and writers over the past five decades, it does not examine the historical context in which this occurred or the underlying political reasons.. As is well-known, studio chiefs, in collaboration with Washington, not only established the notorious blacklist in 1947 to purge scores of left-wing directors, writers and actors from the industry but also produced a string of anti-communist films, including The Red Menace (1949), I Married a Communist (1950), I Was a Communist for the FBI (1951) Trial (1952) and others, to promote Cold War hysteria.. These actions, combined with consumer boycotts and class action lawsuits, should be initiated, he says, to force Washington to establish a transparent tendering process and a “schedule of uniform fees” for film producers wanting access to military equipment.. As Operation Hollywood itself demonstrates, neither Congress nor the WGA have ever done anything to stop Pentagon interference in the film industry.. In fact, as the book reports, in the almost 60 years since the DOD film liaison office was established, there have been only two government hearings into Pentagon interference in the movie industry.
This paper discusses great influence of cold war to the film industry especially in American and in the Soviet Union.
This led to the birth of cold war which greatly influenced the film industry especially in American and in the Soviet Union (John & Peter 451).. In the United States for example, the film industry became a target for Un-American political and social film industry personalities.. The ‘Hollywood Ten’ were screen play writers, film directors and producers.. Before blacklist was history, it was already being played in films (iMinds 3).. Movies which were produced during the cold war era are documented and it is through what they exhibited that we individuals were informed about how the film industry responded to the external social pressures of the cold war and how the film industry reacted to it (Michael 173).. External social pressure is very vital when evaluating the effects of cold war era on the film industry (Whitfield 42).. The cold war era had started a long time before the film industry started getting affected by it.. The movies produced in the cold war era which had cold war theme, mainly conveyed information touching on America and Russia quest for power (Sayre 122).. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.. iMinds.. Running time: Films of the Cold War .. New York: Dial Press, 1982.. The culture of the Cold War .
A look at the relationship between classic television and American culture, concentrating on the 1950s through 1970s.
You had serious spy shows, slyly humorous spy shows, spy shows masquerading as westerns, spy spoofs.. After citing other examples, including Mission:Impossible ’s “the Secretary will disavow any knowledge of your actions” warning, Barnouw concludes that “The official lie was thus enshrined.”Now, I’m not sure I go along with Barnouw’s thinking here.. Barnouw quotes an article by Robert Lewis Shayon in Saturday Review as to what was wrong with all this: The heroes of Mission: Impossible , for pay and at government instigation, interfere directly in the affairs of foreign nations with whom we are at peace and from whom no direct threat to our safety emanates.. These spy shows, Barnouw contends, work hand-in-hand with another facet of 60s programming.. [a] visitor from another planet watching United States television for a week during the Vietnam escalation period might have concluded that viewers were being brainwashed by a cunning conspiracy determined to harness the nation – with special attention to its young – for war.. Though these shows didn't intend to produce such a result, "the rash of heroic and amusing World War II series, in conjunction with the flood of enemy-conspiracy drama, probably did just that.. If you think sex and violence can have an objectivizing and dehumanizing effect on people, then it might well be true that the spy and war dramas of the 60s had, at least for a time, the effect of conditioning the viewer to be more inclined to accept the administration's pronouncements on the Cold War, and its persecution of the very hot war in Vietnam - not to mention a trust of government in general and its ability to take on other efforts such as the War on Poverty.. But if television was indirectly responsible for creating this climate of acceptance, as Barnouw suggests, then it must also accept the responsibility for what came next.
Films of the Cold War: 1948-1990
Films. of the Cold War: 1948-1990. The. Cold War influenced nearly all aspects of American political and cultural life. from 1946 -- when Winston Churchill announced the descent of an Iron Curtain. separating the Soviet Union and her Eastern European satellite states from the. non-communist West -- to the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.. At the same time, Hollywood. films were busy exposing life behind the Iron Curtain and defending the nation's. interests abroad, they were ferreting out spies and subversives at home.. If Pickup on South. Street and Kiss Me Deadly reduce Cold War ideology to narrative convention,. Fred Zinneman's High Noon (1952) and Elia Kazan's On the Waterfront (1954). were profoundly influenced by those ideological conflicts, though manifested. only indirectly.. With a few exceptions, the settings of these films were World. War Two, the Korean War, or the Cold War itself.. Those set in World War Two. show how the virtues of patriotism, professionalism, and teamwork have saved. America from totalitarian predators (See: World War Two); the Korean War films. raised questions about the willingness and the ability of Americans to live. up to those ideals (See: The Korean War); and the Cold War films showed how. those ideals can be called on to prevent war while at the same time containing. the Soviet Union.. In both films American bombers attack the Soviet Union,. and the American President and his military advisors try to prevent the attack. from escalating into a thermonuclear war.. Spy Who Came in from. the Cold, The (1965)
Oscar-nominated Director of Photography Lukasz Żal discusses his aesthetic influences, stylistic choices, and the cinematography of Cold War.
“I love how the film looks.. As Żal describes it, the personal nature of this story very much affected what it was like to work on Cold War .. “It’s [Pawlikowski’s] personal story, but it also becomes, when it’s so important and so close to you, it also becomes a personal journey, where you discover something about yourself and about love.. When, in one shot, you have so much, you have a person, and you also have a background, and just this one shot which contains all the information about the world beyond the frame.. That’s Paweł’s amazing ability; to create this work where you don’t feel like someone is pulling the strings.. “She’s the power who starts to make the camera work like this,” Żal tells me, referencing the camera work in shots like the “Rock Around the Clock” one.. Because every film is like a long chapter in your life, so I think it’s important to make films which are like a journey for me.” One thing he can say for sure is that he might like to shoot his next few projects in color.
Analysis of How Did The Cold War Shaped American Politics, Society, and Economy: [Essay Example], 714 words ›
The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union emerged and developed after World War II, though its origins go back in history to the... read full [Essay Sample] for free
The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union emerged and developed after World War II, though its origins go back in history to the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917.. As the Cold War progressed until the collapse of the Soviet Union, it had a significant impact on the American society, economy, and American politics.. No wonder the Cold War theme is still the best history ee topics – it made many Americans live in fear of the danger of war.. Apart from the Cuban missile crisis, Americans lived in constant fear as the Cold War could turn into a hot war at any time.. Even though the economy benefitted from the United States’ involvement the benefits seemed to go un noticed especially during the war as the nation was filled with fear of a nuclear attack.
James Bond had a bigger role in winning the Cold War than you might think, argues historian Dominic Sandbrook.
When I suggested a series about Britain’s Cold War experience to the BBC, I was keen to emphasise its impact not on those people with their fingers on the button, who usually dominate accounts of the period, but on the ordinary men, women and children who grew up in the shadow of the Bomb .. Today Bond has become such a familiar personification of British style that it is easy to lose sight of his Cold War origins.. On the screen, however, Bond’s Cold War connotations were gently toned down: his early enemies, for example, work for the international crime network SPECTRE, not (as in the books) the Soviet intelligence agency SMERSH, while the films’ obsession with novelty, fashion and design felt a long way from Fleming’s hard-bitten conservatism.. Yet in its way, even the aggressive product placement of the Bond films was a weapon in the wider Cold War.. Six Conservative MPs even signed an Early Day Motion warning that “many of the inhuman practices depicted in the play Nineteen Eighty-Four are already in common use under totalitarian regimes” and applauding "the sincere attempts of the BBC to bring home to the British people the logical and soul-destroying consequences of the surrender of their freedom".Not all the BBC’s contributions to the Cold War, however, went down quite so well with the politicians of the day.. That the film won an Academy Award the following year only deepened the corporation’s embarrassment, and to many viewers’ intense frustration, The War Game was not shown on British television for 20 years.. By then, however, the BBC had redeemed itself with perhaps the most harrowing Cold War fiction of all – Threads, which explores the impact of a nuclear attack on two Sheffield families.. The great irony was that even as half the population were telling pollsters they expected to see World War Three in their lifetime, the end of the Cold War was only a few years away.
As the passage of time slowly diminishes important events, it is history that must gather all the facts and emotions and expose it to future generations. One such event, perhaps one of the most important of the twentieth century, no longer exercises relevancy in the daily lives of many- the Cold War. The Cold War shaped American foreign policy and political ideology, impacted the domestic economy and the presidency, and affected the personal lives of Americans creating a climate of expected conformity and normalcy. By the end of the 1950's, dissent slowly increased reaching a climax by the late 1960's. The Cold War was to last almost to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the death of the Soviet Union. The origins of the Cold War can be traced to the late 1910's when America experienced the Red Scare. Suspicion and apprehension of the Soviet Union remained constant throughout the twenties and thirties intensifying with Josef Stalin's brutal regime.
The Cold War shaped American foreign policy and political ideology, impacted the domestic economy and the presidency, and affected the personal lives of Americans creating a climate of expected conformity and normalcy.. The Cold War was to last almost to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the death of the Soviet Union.. As World War II came to a close with imminent allied victory, differences surfaced between the Americans and the Soviets.. Even though Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) was prepared to live with this notion, widespread political opposition existed in Washington as exemplified by Congressman John Dingell's statement in August 1943, "We Americans are not sacrificing, fighting, and dying to make permanent and more powerful the communistic government of Russia and to make Joseph Stalin a dictator over the liberated countries of Europe.". As the war ended, enthusiasm turned to skepticism when American diplomats perceived a toughening of Soviet policy.. (2) American foreign policy became one of containment as it reacted to the Cold War.. The Cold War's rhetoric and anti-communist propaganda dictated foreign policy.. The Cold War affected domestic policy two ways: socially and economically.. The longest conflict of the twentieth century, the Cold War affected everything, from political ideology, foreign and domestic policy, to the presidency and the personal lives of Americans.. With the collapse of the Iron curtain in Eastern Europe, the unification of Germany, the fragmentation and subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union have all but eliminated the Cold War.. International cooperation during the first Gulf War demonstrated that even before the end of the Soviet Union, the rhetoric of the past no longer had any place in American foreign or domestic policy.. page 143 Biblioqraphy: The Unfinished Journey- America since World War II by William H. Chafe.
While the first television sets and networks were already being built before World War II, during the war, most television production ceased. Afterward, though, TV helped create the world we live in today. So how did the war affect television?
In April of 1942 (when about 5,000 television sets were in operation), production of new televisions, radios and other civilian broadcasting equipment was suspended until August of 1945.. On the next few pages, we'll look more deeply into this period in the history of American television and its place in post-war society.. And just as owning a television had quickly become accepted and expected in such a short time, the U.S. was now being trained to aspire to images of the American Dream in entirely new ways.. Our desires created the programming -- to keep the advertisers happy -- and the programming, in turn, affected our desires.. Television created another feedback loop, in which the fight for civil rights created the news, and the news created the fight in turn.. "Make Room For TV: Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar America.". TV History.
At the end of the war, millions of people were homeless, the European economy had collapsed, and much of the continent’s industrial infrastructure had been destroyed.
The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (U.S.), who soon entered the Cold War.. The Allies established occupation administrations in Germany, divided into western and eastern occupation zones controlled by the Western Allies and the USSR accordingly.. A denazification program in Germany led to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals and the removal of ex-Nazis from power, along with a “industrial disarmament” of the German economy, initially leading to economic stagnation.. Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany, and was sped up by the liberalization of European economic policy both directly and indirectly caused by the Marshall Plan (1948–1951) .. Marshall Plan An American initiative to aid Western Europe in which the United States gave more than $12 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.. German economic miracle Also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II.. The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (U.S.), creating a bipolar world.. Allied during World War II, the U.S. and USSR became competitors on the world stage and engaged in the Cold War, so-called because it never boiled over into open war between the two powers but was focused on espionage, political subversion, and proxy wars.. In Europe, West Germany declined economically during the first years of the Allied occupation but later experienced a remarkable recovery, and had by the end of the 1950s doubled production from its prewar levels.. The Allies’ immediate post-war “industrial disarmament” plan for Germany was to destroy Germany’s capability to wage war by complete or partial deindustrialization.. In July 1947, President Truman rescinded on “national security grounds” the directive that ordered the U.S. occupation forces to “take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany.” A new directive recognized that “[a]n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany.”. Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany and was sped up by the liberalization of European economic policy that the Marshall Plan (1948–1951) both directly and indirectly caused.
It’s time for a refresher course.. Superpower rivalry started almost as soon as the “good” war, World War II, ended.. Having just saved the world a few years earlier, they weren’t excited about having to do it again, particularly since this time both sides had the atomic bomb.. This now largely forgotten 1965 film reflected a critical turning point in the Cold War.. American films did more than just mirror the geopolitics of Cold War confrontation; they also reflected how the struggle shaped popular culture.
The 45-year standoff between the West and the U.S.S.R. ended when the Soviet Union dissolved. Some say another could be starting as tensions with Russia rise.
As World War II dragged to an end in 1945, the leaders of the “Big Three” allied powers—the United States, Soviet Union, and Great Britain—met in Potsdam, Germany, to hash out terms to conclude the bloodiest conflict the world had ever seen.. Late in the conference, U.S. President Harry Truman took aside Soviet premier Joseph Stalin to share some explosive news: The U.S. had just successfully tested a weapon of “unusual destructive force.” It was a nuclear weapon capable of destroying entire cities, the most dangerous and powerful armament the world had ever seen.. Left : On the back of a photograph taken at the 1945 Potsdam Conference, U.S. President Harry Truman recalls a conversation with Soviet premier Joseph Stalin that’s often considered the opening salvo of the Cold War.. The atom bombs killed more than 100,000 Japanese citizens, unveiling a destructive power so terrifying that Orwell predicted it would discourage open warfare among great powers, creating instead “a state which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of ‘cold war’ with its neighbours.”. Over more than four decades of Cold War, the U.S. and Soviet Union waged multiple proxy wars across the globe.
The Cold War (1945–1963) quiz that tests what you know about important details and events in the book.
Stalin’s Postwar. Vision Although Stalin joined with the United States in founding. the United Nations , he fought Truman on nearly every. other issue.. In defiance, he followed through on his. plan to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Germany by. setting up pro-Communist governments in Poland and other Eastern. European countries.. Containment The Berlin crisis, as well as the formation of the Eastern. bloc of Soviet-dominated countries in Eastern Europe, caused. foreign policy officials in Washington to believe that the United. States needed to check Soviet influence abroad in order to prevent. the further spread of Communism.. In 1947,. Truman incorporated this desire for containment into. his Truman Doctrine , which vowed to support free nations. fighting Communism.. Truman at Home In the domestic policy arena, Truman signed. the National Security Act in 1947 to. restructure America’s defenses for the new Communist threat.. His Fair Deal domestic policies and support for civil. rights, however, divided the Republican Party and nearly cost Truman. the election.. Red Hunts Developments in Eastern Europe, the fall of China to. Communist revolutionaries in 1949,. and the Soviet Union’s development of nuclear weapons terrified. Americans, who feared that Communists would try to infiltrate or. attack the United States from within.. The Korean War Cold War tensions between the United States. and the USSR eventually exploded in Korea when Soviet-backed. North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950.. When MacArthur began to criticize Truman publicly for. his unwillingness to use nuclear weapons in Korea, Truman was forced to. fire his top general for insubordination.. United States forces remained. entrenched at the 38th. parallel for two more years, at the cost of more than 50,000 American. lives.. Eisenhower threatened the USSR with “massive retaliation , ” or. nuclear war, against Soviet aggression or the spread of Communism.. Kennedy and. the New Frontier Facing term limits, Eisenhower endorsed Vice President Richard Nixon for. the Republican presidential nomination in 1960.. Kennedy also removed American missiles from Turkey and agreed to. work on reducing Cold War tensions.